India is the third largest electricity producing nation in the world accounting for almost five per cent of global demand for power. Power generation has grown over 100 fold since independence to 1 313 TWh (excl. captive power generation) in 2021-22. Widespread power shortages (up to 13 % a decade ago) have gradually diminished on a national scale although shortages do exist in some regions. Thermal powerplants generate the bulk of the electricity produced in the country. Nuclear power capacity, currently at 6 780 MWe, is expected to be augmented by 6 700 MW by 2022 in addition to 7 000 MW of newly planned nuclear plants. The power sector has seen vast reforms especially after the passage of the Electricity Act 2003 including the formation of independent regulators like CERC. India has made a commitment at COP21 to increase the renewable energy based power capacity to 40 per cent by 2030.
Power Grid Corp. (PGCIL) operates the largest (132 000 circuit kms as on Nov 30 '16) grid sytems in the world and transmits over half of the total power generated (excl. captive) in India. India's captive power plants generated 68.2 bn kWh of electricity during 2003-04. Large captive power users include the aluminium, petrochemical and iron and steel industrial sectors.
Around 16 GW of new power capacity was added to the grid in 2022, out of which 13 GW was solar powered capacity. Renewable energy generating capacity increased to almost 126 GW in Apr '23 which amounts to over 30 % of India's total electricity generating capacity (417 GW as on Apr '23). Total solar power capacity (incl. rooftop and off-grid) leapfrogged to over 67 GW by Apr '23. Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Telangana and Gujarat have the largest installed capacity among the states of India.
Close to 100 % of all the villages spread across India have been electrified although on a household level some states in India still have a low percentage of electrified households.
|Type||Capacity (GW) - Apr 2023||Generation (Billion kWh) 2021-22*|
|Thermal (coal, lignite, gas and diesel)||237.3||1 115|
|Captive (>1 MW)||50.3 (Mar 2017)||166 (2014-15)|
|¹ Captive (2014-15) includes 130.68 bn KWh steam, 11.52 bn KWh diesel, 24.08 bn KWh gas turbine and 0.15 bn KWh hydro generated power.
India had a thermal generating capacity of ca 236 GW in Jan 2023.
|Sundargarh||Orissa||4,000||Bid process undergoing|
|Sasan||Madhya Pradesh||3 960||Fully commissioned|
India had a total hydro generating capacity of 46.9 GW in Jan '23.
Nuclear power generates less than 3 per cent of India's total electricity consumption. NPCIL, a public sector unit, operates 20 reactors at six nuclear plant sites across India. The total nuclear power capacity amounts to 6 780 MWe and approx. 37.7 billion kWh were generated in 2016-17. Ten reactors with a capacity to generate 8 700 MWe are under construction. A total 15 000 MW of nuclear electricity capacity by 2024 has been planned. BHAVINI is constructing a 500 MWe Fast Breeder Reactor at Kalpakkam. Fast breeder technology uses spent fuel of plutonium and uranium from the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR, elsewhere known as CANDU) of the the other NPCIL plants. Uranium is mined by the Uranium Corp. of India Ltd. in Jaduguda, Jharkhand. The Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad fabricates the required nuclear fuel assemblies for the eventual generation of electricity. Thorium, due to large reserves in India, is also used used as nuclear fuel. New nuclear power plant clusters are plannedin collaboration with potential nuclear vendors such as Areva NP, GE-Hitachi, Westinghouse Electric and Atomstroyexport.
|Rawatbhata (Kota)||Rajasthan||1 180||6|
|Kudamkulam||Tamil Nadu||2 000||2|
|Nuclear Power Plants Under Construction|
|Gorakhpur||Haryana||2 x 700 (GHAVP 1 & 2)||2|
|Rawatbhata (Kota)||Rajasthan||1 400 (RAPP 7 & 8)||2|
|Kakrapur||Gujarat||1 400 (700 MW KAPP-3 reactor reached 1st criticality in Jul '20)||2|
|Kudamkulam||Tamil Nadu||4 000 (KKNPP 3 to 6)||4|
|¹ Megawatts of electrical output|
The NRSE (New and Renewable Sources of Energy) sector had targeted 175 GW of installed capacity by 2022 out of which 60 GW would be wind powered. India has the fourth largest wind power generating capacity (ca 6.6 % global market share in 2016) in the world with an installed capacity of almost 43 GW in Apr '23, behind only China, USA and Germany. Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat and Rajasthan have the largest installed wind power capacity in India. Over 29 000 wind tower turbines had been installed by 2016 and the wind power industry provides employment to some 400 000 people. Total wind power potential in India is estimated to be approx. 100 GW.
Other renewable sources of energy include small hydro projects (incl. tidal), solar, biomass gas, Biomass power and urban industrial waster power. The total RES based generating capacity increased to over 121 GW in Jan '23 accounting for approx. 30 per cent of India's total electricity generating capacity. Although wind energy holds a lion's share in the production of electricity among renewable sources of energy, bio-based power (agro residues & plantations), bagasse (sugar cane fibre residue) cogeneration and small hydro power plants (up to 25 MW) feed substantial amounts of electricity into the power grid. Solar energy based power projects are being taken up at a rapidly increasing pace with a total generating capacity of approx. 63 GW by end '22. India is among the largest solar power markets in the world. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission had envisaged 100 GW of solar power capacity in the national grid by 2022.