India was the fourth largest motor vehicle/car manufacturer in the world in 2016¹. Indian auto manufacturers produced a record 23.96 milion motor vehicles in 2015-16 (Apr-Mar), incl. 3.22 million passenger vehicles. India is the largest manufacturer of three-wheelers (934 000 in 2015-16) and the seventh largest commercial vehicle (811 000 in 2016). Two-wheeler production reached 18.5 m units in the same year. India is the largest tractor manufacturing country (around 1/3 of global output) with a total domestic sales of 494 000 units in 2015-16. Construction vehicle production was approx. 59 000 in 2014. 2.03 million passengers cars were sold in India in 2015 (total car production amounted to 3.68 m units in 2016). The total turnover of the auto industry amounted to ca USD 145 billion in 2015-16. Total installed capacity was ca 31.5 m units at the end of 2014-15.
India is the second largest motorcycle (10.5 million produced in 2015 of a total of over 16.1 m two-wheelers) and the fourth largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world. Over 13 million people work directly or indirectly in the auto industry. Indian passenger vehicle exports amounted to 654 000 units in 2015-16, while 2.48 m two-wheelers (mainly motorcycles), 102 000 commercial vehicles and 404 000 three wheelers were shipped overseas in the same year.
The total turnover of the Indian automotive component industry was estimated at USD 39 billion in 2015-16. Auto ancillary exports fetched USD 10.8 bn in the same year while the total turnover of India's vehicle tyre industry amounted to an estimated ₹ 450 billion in 2013-14. The total number of registered motor vehicles reached approx. 210 million in March 2015.
Established auto manufacturers and new entrants in the Indian auto market have expanded their production capacities on a large scale. Such companies include Maruti-Suzuki, GM, Tata Motors, Nissan-Renault, VW Group, Toyota, Honda and Hyundai.
¹ Source: OICA (The International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers 2016 Statistics)
|Two-Wheelers||Cars, Jeeps and Taxis||Buses||Goods Vehicles||Misc (incl. tractors and three-wheelers|
Above video clips: Hyderabad's total motor vehicle population amounted to 1.76 million as at Oct 2007. Road congestion and air pollution, due to a rapid growth in the number of private vehicles and road infrastructure not keeping pace with the growth in vehicle volumes, is a problem as in all the other major urban areas of India. Hyderabad also lacks an efficient and extensive public transport. A metro rail system is under construction in the city.
A Chevrolet dealer showroom in Bangalore. Models sold in India under the Chevrolet brand include Cruze, Spark, Beat, Sail, Tavera and Trailbrazer.
|City||Cars||All Motor Vehicles|
|Delhi||2 172||7 350|
|Maruti Suzuki India||1 305 351||123 897||1 429 248|
|Hyundai Motor India||500 537 (2016)||161 517 (2016)||662 054 (2016)|
|Honda Cars India||156 107 (2016)||5 740||197 799|
|Tata Motors||107 808||3 264||111 072|
|GM India||37 082|
|Nissan India||39 389||111 612||151 001|
|Ford India||77 715 (2015)||110 840||176 858 (2015)|
|Toyota Kirloskar Motor||172 241|
|Renault India||132 235 (2016)|
|Volkswagen India||60 500 (2016)||84 500 (2016)||145 145 (2016)|
|BMW India||7 861 (2016, incl. Minis)|
|Mercedes-Benz India||13 231 (2016)|
|Jaguar Land Rover||~3000 (2015)|
|Fiat-Chrysler India||8 575 (2015)|
|Volvo||1 584 (2016)|
|Audi India||11 192 (2015)|
|2007-08: Indicates April 2007-March 2008, FY09=Apr'08-Mar'09|
06-07: Indicates April 2006-March 2007
* Incl. of exports
** Apr-Dec 2006
|Aston Martin||ca 30 a year (2013)|
|Audi A4||-||-||102||1,050 (All Audi models)||1,658 (All Audi models)||
3,003 ( all models)
5,511 (All models)
|Audi A6||105 (all Audi models-'05)||300 (all Audi models)||349 (all Audi models)||111 (Jan-Apr)||396|
|Audi A8||-||-||172||1,050 (all Audi models)|
|Audi RS 5|
|Audi TT||5 (2005)||na|
|Bentley||20||28||ca 300 since 2003|
|BMW 3 Series||-||-||946||1,075 (FY09)||1,155||
|BMW 5 Series||-||-||822||1,352 (FY09)||1,590||
|BMW 6 series, X3 and X5||ca 40 (X5)||257 (all models)||83||4 (6 series, Mar)|
|BMW 7 Series||-||-||251||279 (FY09)|
|BMW X3, X5 and X6||
X3 930 (2012)
|BMW Z4 Roadster||
|Chevrolet Aveo||-||-||5,624||1,174 (Jan)||746 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Aveo U-VA||-||-||11,523||
|Chevrolet Captiva||-||-||607||2,134 (FY09)||201 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Forester (discontd.)||260 (2003-2005)||-||-||-||-||
|Chevrolet Optra Magnum||9 191||na||6,058 (inc. SR-V model)||1287 (Jan-Mar)||89 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Spark||-||-||22,060||7,265 (Jan-Mar)||2,940 (Feb)||
|Chevrolet Tavera||18 622 (2005)||na||20,671||4,892 (Jan-Mar)||945 (Feb)||
|Fiat Grande Punto||-||-||-||-||
8,401 (all models in Apr-Jul)
~ 12,000 (Jan-Nov)
|Fiat Palio Stile||791 (05-06)||1,614 (06-07)||3,303|
|Fiat Petra/Adventure (discontd.)||454 (05-06)||584 (06-07)|
|Fiat 500||-||-||-||ca 30 till Sept||
ca 65 till Jun '10
|Ford Endeavour||1 818 (05-06)||na||2,916||2,780 (FY09)||184 (Oct)||
51,420 (all models Jan-May)
|Ford Fiesta||ca 3 500||na||22,855|
58,000 (till Nov)
|Ford Fusion (discontd.)||329²||na||2,678|
|Ford Ikon (discontd.)||24 536||na||4,797|
|Ford Mondeo (discontd.)||25² (05-06)||0|
|Hindustan Ambassador||12 740||na||8,487|
|Honda Accord||3 324 (05-06)||2,728 (06-07)||2,133||4,108 (FY09)||948 (Jan-Apr)||
|Honda City||37 545 (2005-06)||40,464 (06-07)||40,536 (incl. Marina STW)||18,482 (Jan-Apr)||
|Honda Civic||na||16,262 (06-07)||16,723||2,386 (Jan-Apr)||
|Honda CR-V||1 858 (05-06)||1,873 (06-07)||3,425||501 (Jan-Mar)||
|Hyundai Accent||24 383||na||8,274|
|Hyundai Elantra (discontd.)||2 331 (2005)||1,683 (06-07)||10 (Mar)|
|Hyundai Getz Prime||5 483||na||16,787||9,442 (FY09)|
|Hyundai i10||-||-||14,451 (2007)||106,110 (FY09)||24,990 (till Mar 12)|
|Hyundai i20||-||-||-||4,991 (FY09)||4,940 (Oct)|
|Hyundai Santa Fe|
|Hyundai Santro Xing||103 301²||163,838 (06-07)||121,163||91,466 (FY09)|
|Hyundai Sonata||806 (2005)||506||577||486 (FY09)||232 (Jan-Apr)||
|Hyundai Terracan (discontd.)||318³||-|
|Hyundai Tucson||884 (March-Nov 05)||533 (incl. Terracan)||188||50 (FY09)||13 (Jan-Apr)|
|Hyundai Verna||na||na||24,370||2,132 (Feb)||
242 (incl. Land Rover)
891 (Apr-Mar '11) incl. Land Rovers
2289 (Apr-Mar'12) incl. Land Rovers
ca 17 (2012)
|Land Rover||ca 30||na||~90 (2008)||242 (incl. Jaguar)||
|Mahindra Bolero||-||-||51,009||55,924 (FY09)|
|Mahindra Max||-||-||-||3,000 (Apr08-Feb09)|
|Mahindra Scorpio||31,661 (05-06)||38,015 (06-07)||41,443||27,000 (Apr08-Feb09)||3,200 (Mar)||
ca 44,000 ('10-'11)
|Mahindra Xylo||-||-||-||7,201 (FY09)||~10,500 (Jan-Apr)|
|Maruti 800||116 262²||79,245 (06-07)||69,553||49,383 (FY09)||9,915 (Apr-Jul)|
|Maruti Alto||126 223²||200,000+ (Apr06-Feb07)||227,173||218,127 (FY09)||240,000|
|Maruti Baleno (discontd.)||6 521||na|
|Maruti DZire||-||-||5,658||61,952 (FY09)||
8,995 incl. SX4 (Jan)
|Maruti Esteem (discontd.)||18 379||na||12,485|
|Maruti Grand Vitara||na||na||795||270 (FY09)|
|Maruti Gypsy||na||na||3,132||7,219 (FY09)|
103 (Mar '11)
|Maruti Omni||60 377²||na||88,273|
|Maruti Swift||34 463 (May-Nov 05)||na||88,745||110,071 (FY09)|
|Maruti SX4||-||-||31,192||1,953 (Feb)|
|Maruti Versa||4 291³||na||1,456||1,440 (FY09)|
|Maruti Wagon R||79 712²||na||132,727||134,768 (FY09)||140,000||
163,000 (Apr-Mar '11)
|Maruti Estilo||65 345²||na||50,635 (Zen and Estilo)||32,694 (FY09)|
5,109 (All models, Jan-Nov)
6,698 (all models Jan-Nov)
|Mercedes E-Class||825 (05)||922||1,048||1,167||1,048||
|Mercedes S-Class||144 (2005)||248||518||561||467||
|Mercedes CLS/SLK/SL/CLK/M||na||118||141 (incl. 80 M-class)||125 (models other than C,E and S class)||
6 CBU imports(Jan)
|Maybach||3 ('04 and '05)||na||na|
|Mitsubishi Lancer/Cedia||2 509||na||2,582||1,570 (FY09)|
|Mitsubishi Outlander||-||-||-||278 (FY09)|
|Mitsubishi Pajero/Montero||na||na||1,676||1,814 (FY09)|
|Nissan Teana||-||-||347||58 (FY09)||207 (FY10)||
|Nissan X-Trail||253 (2005)||250||173||100 (FY09)||
|Opel Corsa (discontd)||8 369||na||-||-||-||
|Porsche (various models)||ca 100 (2005)||160||168||168|
|Mahindra Verito (Renault Logan)||-||-||25,884||13,419 (FY09)||2,520 (Feb-Apr)||
|Rolls-Royce||5 (2005)||7 (2006)||12 (2007)||14 (2008)||<10 (2009)||
ca 250 till date (end 2013)
5,510 (Jan-Mar) all Škoda models
|Škoda Octavia/Laura||9 559 (05-06)||11,433||10,944||7,459 (FY09)||
|Škoda Superb||na||769||586||694 (FY09)||541 (Apr-Jun)||
|Tata Indica||111 574 (05-06)||144,690 (06-07)||135,642||111,257 (FY09)||91,295 (Apr-Jan '10)||
|Tata Indigo/Indigo XL/Indigo CS||39 377 (05-06)||34,310 (06-07)||31,416||49,190 (FY09)||41,724 (Apr-Jan '10)||
|Tata Marina||2 050||na|
21,535 (Jul-Jan '10)
|Tata Safari||4 692 (05-06)||15,816 (06-07)||19,078||25,630 (Sumo+Safari: Apr-Jan '10)||
3,538 (Safari/Sumo Jan)
|Tata Sumo / Sumo Victa||33 213 (05-06)||32,077 (06-07)||28,622|
|Tata Sumo Grande/MKII|
|Tata Xenon XT||-||-||-||161 (FY09)|
|Toyota Camry||794 (2005)||1,001 (06-07)||988||182 (Apr-Jun)||44 (Apr-Jun)||
|Toyota Corolla Altis||8 974 (2005)||na||6,204||9,172||
|Toyota Etios Liva||
|Toyota Innova||32 000 (2005)||na||48,069||42,740||
|Toyota Land Cruiser 200|
|Toyota Land Cruiser Prado||162 (2005)||na||141||109 (FY09)|
|Toyota Qualis (discontd.)||31 759²||na|
|VW New Beetle||
ca 240 till Jun '10
|VW Jetta||-||-||1,566 (all VW models)||1,957 (Jan-Aug: all VW models)||
27,946 (Vento and Polo)
58 (till Jun '11)
|Volvo V40 Cross Country|
|Volvo S80||-||-||ca 100 (all Volvo)||ca 90 ( all Volvo models)||
320 (all models)
Audi sells the A3, A4, A6, A8 L, Q3, Q5, Q7, S4, S5, RS 6 Coupe, RS 7 Sportback, TT Coupe, and R8 range of models. Audi competes in a niche market along with BMW and Mercedes cars and sold 11 192 cars in 2015. Audi assembles the A4, A6, Q3, Q5 and Q7 models at ŠkodaAuto's plant located at Aurangabad, Maharashtra while the other models are imported from Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi cars are available through over 60 dealers across India.
BMW has an assembly plant with an annual capacity of 14 000 units in Chenglepet located near Chennai that rolled out its 25,000th BMW car in Jul '12. The plant assembles BMW X3, X5, 3, 5 and 7 series models. The present local content in the assembled cars is around 10 per cent. The current annual capacity of the plant is 11,000 cars. BMW imports the 7 series and the X3/X5 SUV's and the new X6 Sport Activity Coupe. BMW sells its cars through a network of 40 dealers. BMW sold 7 500 BMW's and 361 Minis in 2016.
Fiat has had a long presence in India. Prior to FCA India, Fiat had a technical collaboration with Premier Automobiles, for the manufacture of the popular Padmini model, a small sedan based on the third generation Fiat 1100D dated from the early sixties. Fiat India's earlier products included the Uno, Siena and Palio. Fiat's sales in India amounted to 8 575 cars in 2015.
Ford India sold 176 858 cars in 2015 of which 99 143 were exported and 77 715 units sold in India. Car export destinations include countries such as South Africa, the Middle East region and a few European countries. Ford operates two auto plants in India - Chennai (Tamil Nadu) and Sanand (Gujarat). The latter facility has manufactured 100 000 cars till Sep '16. The two plants have an annual capacity to manufacture upto 480 000 cars and 610 000 engines.
Ford India's manufacturing complex located at Maraimalai Nagar, approx. 40 km southwest of central Chennai.
© 2005 Google, © 2006 Europa Technologies, Image © 2006 DigitalGlobe
The capacity of GMIL's two manufacturing plants at Halol (Gujarat) and Talegaon (Maharashtra) have a combined capacity of 225,000 cars per annum. The Halol plant will be shutdown at the end of Apr 2017 due to decreasing overall GM car sales in India.
HM was a Kolkata based car manufacturer with manufacturing facilities at Uttarpara (West Bengal), Pithampur (Madhya Pradesh), Thiruvallur (Tamil Nadu) and Hosur (Karnataka). HM sold 9,211 motor vehicles in 2008-09 including Mitsubishi models. Ambassador (petrol, diesel and CNG) - Production of the Ambassador which was based on an early 50's Austin Oxford model ended in 2014. Over 800 000 Ambassadors were produced.
Image above: A Hindustan Contessa in Hyderabad. Contessas are now a rare sight on Indian roads. The Contessa's body is based on the early-seventies Vauxhall Victor (Opel Rekord). Production of the Contessa spanned two decades from 1982. Production ended in 2002. The Contessa was one of the few more luxurious cars built in India (alongwith the Standard Motors' Standard 2000 model) prior to economic reforms in the early nineties.
HMFCL-Mitsubishi manufactures Mitsubishi Pajero SUV's at its Thiruvallur plant located near Chennai.
HCIL manufactures the Jazz, Brio, City, Civic, CR-V and Accord models. HCIL's two auto plants are located in Surajpur, Greater NOIDA, U.P and Tapukara (Bhiwadi), Rajasthan with a capacity to manufacture 100,000 cars per annum. Honda India's sales amounted to 192 059 cars during 2015/16. Honda began exporting Brio cars to South Africa/SADC countries in Oct '12 and exported a total of 5740 cars during 2015/16.
Hyundai Motor India's two adjacent car plants at Irungattukotai near Chennai have a combined capacity of 600,000 cars per annum, the parent company's largest auto manufacturing facilities outside of South Korea. Domestic auto sales amounted to 500 537 units while exports fell slightly to 161 517 units in 2016. HMIL had produced 7 m cars by Nov 2016 of which over 2.4 m were exported.
HMIL's integrated manufacturing complex located in Irungattukottai, approx. 30 km west of central Chennai. A second plant was commissioned in Feb 2008 and is mainly used for the production of the i10 model. These plants form the hub of Hyundai's global small car production.
© 2005 Google, © 2006 Europa Technologies, Image © 2006 DigitalGlobe
ICML, a unit of the Sonalika Group, manufactures the Extreme MUV. ICML's auto plant is located at Amb, Himchal Pradesh and has a capacity to produce 24,000 units per annum.
M & M sold 236 307 passenger vehicles in 2015-16.
MSIL began manufacturing Suzuki Alto model cars in Dec 1983 in Gurgaon after which it quickly overtook both Hindustan Motors and Premier Auto to become India's largest car manufacturer as early as the mid-eighties. The company's net sales amounted to ₹ 426 billion (2014/15) while total auto sales grew to 1.43 million units (incl. 124 000 cars exported) in 2015-16 (Apr-Mar). Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan has a 56.2 % stake in MSIL. MSIL's total auto production exceeded 15 million in May 2015 and car exports reached the 1.5 m mark in Sep '16.
MSIL currently operates four assembly plants including an auto/transmission/engine plant in Manesar (Haryana) through a joint venture (Maruti Suzuki Automobiles India) with Suzuki Motor Corp. MSIL has a total auto manufacturing capacity of 1.55 million units per annum. Suzuki Motor Corporation is building a greenfield auto plant in Hansalpur, Gujarat with an investment of ₹ 185 billion. The plant is planned to commence car manufacturing in 2017.
Maruti's sprawling manufacturing complex in Gurgaon has a capacity to manufacture 700,000 cars per year. Maruti's total manufacturing capacity amounts to 900,000 million incl. plants at both Gurgaon and Manesar. Total car production amounted to 1.02 million units in 2009-10. The total capacity is expected to increase to 1.1 million by 2011. Maruti Suzuki cars are sold through 702 outlets in 478 cities and towns across India.
© 2005 Google, Image © 2006 DigitalGlobe
Mercedes-Benz India's sales in 2016 amounted 13 231, a slight drop from the 13 252 cars sold in 2015. Total sales since 1995, starting with the assembly of the E-class W 124 model, would have crossed 50,000 in Jan '14. Mercedes-Benz range of cars also includes the luxurious Maybach sedan in limited numbers.
Two variants of the heavy-duty imported Actros range of tippers were launched in 2006. 240 trucks (Actros 4840K) were sold in 2008. The Mercedes-Benz plant located on a 100 acre site in Chakan, Maharashtra has a capacity to produce 10 000 cars (to be increased to 20 000) and 1,200 commercial vehicles per annum.
Nissan sells its a range of six cars in the Indian market through a 95 dealer network. Nissan's production in India includes the Micra, Sunny and Terrano model at the Renault Nissan plant (capacity: 480 000 units pa) located near Chennai. Nissan Motor India sold 151 001 cars in 2015/16 of which export accounted for 111 612 units and domestic sales at a lower volume of 39 389 cars.
Premier produces a compact SUV called the RiO with total sales till date (Nov '11) amounting to ca 2000 units. Premier, the erstwhile manufacturer of the Premier Padmini small sedan made a comeback with the launch of the RiO mini SUV, based on the Chinese Zotye Nomad model. The RiO is reasonably priced at less than ₹ 500 000 and is powered by the Peugeot TUD5 1.5 l diesel engine. Premier also manufactures LCV's.
Mahindra Reva produces the Mahindra e2o, a 3-door compact electric car.
Škoda Auto India's product range includes a range of cars assembled at Škoda's Aurangabad plant, ŠkodaAuto's first auto assembly plant setup outside of Europe. The current capacity is 50,000 units per annum. Škoda sold 12 699 cars in the first ten months of 2015/16.
Tata Motors is India's largest (2015-16 gross revenues - ₹ 2756 bn) and is ranked among the largest medium and heavy commercial vehicle manufacturers. Tata Motors sold 926,000 units during the year ended March 2012. Domestic car sales amounted to 100 808 units while utility and commercial vehicles sales added upto 345 868 units in 2015-16. Exports amounted to 58 036 vehicles in the same year. Tata Motors has sold over one million passenger cars (as at Oct 05) since the first model, the Tata Sierra was introduced in 1991.
Tata's low-cost (approx. 2,500 USD) people's car, the 4-door Nano, was unveiled at the AutoExpo 2008 in Delhi and launched on Mar 23 '09. Tata has invested approx. ₹ 17 bn developing and producing the Nano. A dedicated auto plant (with an annual production capacity of 250,000 units) for the Nano at Sanang, Gujarat was inaugurated in June '10. Tata unveiled the Nano Europa (export variant) and Indica Vista EV (Electric Vehicle) at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. The Indica Vista EV will be produced in association with Miljø Grenland/Innovasjon based in Norway. Tata Motor's UK subsidiary Tata Motors European Technical Centre plc has a 50.3 per cent stake in the company specializing in solutions for electric vehicles. The Indica Vista EV is expected to launched later in 2009 in Norway. Tata Motors offers a range of Land Rover and Jaguar models (Jaguar XJ, XF, XK and the Land Rover Freelander 2, Discovery 4, Range Rover Sport and Range Rover) in India. Tata Marcopolo Motors Ltd. (TMML) manufactures fully built buses and coaches inc. low-floor intra-city models. TMML bus sales amounted to 190 units in 2007-08.
Tata GenX Nano Tata's low-cost minicar was launched on March 23rd '09. Deliveries began in July '09 with sales tallying to 77,000 till the end of 2010. The Nano is powered by a two-cylinder 35 PS 624cc rear-mounted engine with a top speed of 105 km/h. Although only 3.1 m long (a tad longer than the Morris Mini), the Nano is very tall at 1.6 m and boasts 20 % more space than the Maruti 800 (based on the early 80's Suzuki Alto). Three variants with different trim levels are available.
Toyota Kirloskar sold 139 000 cars in 2015-16. The Toyota factory site is located at Bidadi, Karnataka and consists of two auto plants with a total capacity of 310 000 units.
Volkswagen operates an auto plant in Chakan near Pune (Maharashtra) which churned out 145 145 cars in 2016. The plant manufactures VW Tiguan SUV, VW Vento, Polo and Škoda Rapid models and rolled out its 400 000th manufactured car in July '14. VW Jetta and Passat models are assembled at Škoda's plant located in Aurangabad.
The Force Motors (erstwhile Bajaj Tempo) product portfolio includes a range of LCV's, utility and commercial vehicles. Force Motors has also planned a joint venture with Neoman for the manufacture of chassis and complete buses.